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International Birth Defects Information Systems
Omphalocele Gastroschisis Prune Belly

International Birth Defects Information Systems

Abdominal Wall Defects
Abdominal Wall Exstrophies

Topics: Abdominal defects | Abdominal exstrophies | Abdominal wall defects |Abdominoschisis | Amnionic band s. | Exomphalos | Gastroschisis | Laparoschisis | Omphalocele | Paraomphalocele | Prune belly | Shprintzen omphalocele | Thoraco-Abdominal ectopia cordis | Cantrell-Heller-Ravitch syndrome | Pentalogy syndrome | Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia | Paraomphalocele |

Related Topics : | Bibliography | Disabilities | Birth Defects | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome |

Service Related: | Support Groups | Professional Associations | Key Information Sources |

Languages: English | Spanish | Ukranian |

Notes per Visitors  
Gastroschisis is a small defect that commonly occurs adjacent to the umbilicus ... to the right of the umbilical cord ... omphalocele ... a defect in the abdominal wall ... gastroschisis is a herniation of the abdominal contents without the presence of a sac or membrane ... usually less than 4 cm and smaller than omphaloceles ... Screening for gastroschisis is done by measuring alpha fetoprotein levels (AFP) ... indicative of abdominal wall defects as well as neural tube defects ... other anomaliesassociated with gastroschisis ... intestinal atresia, gastroesophageal reflux, and cryptorchidism or undescended testicles.

OMPHALOCELE (Humanities)
Pandora's Word Box

OMPHALOCELE (Medical Version)

Abdominal Exstrophies: Gastroschisis: Exomphalos
GEEPS (Gastroschisis, Exomphalos, Extrophies Parents Support, 2007
Visitor Comments [Support Group] "... short definition od gastroschisis ..."
Gastroschisis: Exomphalos … condition where the umbilicus is abnormally large … umbilicus measures more than 10cm in diameter and the abdominal organs protrude into the base of the umbilical cord. Associated abnormalities, particularly involving the heart, are common … Gastroschisis is a condition where the intestine protrudes from the abdomen through a hole in the abdomen wall beside the umbilicus …

Omphalocele and Gastroschisis
James G. Glasser, M.D. University of Southern Carolina, eMedicine, June 08, 2006
Visitor Comments [for Professionals mainly] [for Teaching Purposes] "... a great link."
Gastroschisis and omphalocele are among the most frequently encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric surgery. Combined incidence of these anomalies is 1 in 2000 births ... Many babies have correctable lesions and simply require routine pediatric care. For others, the abdominal wall defect is part of a larger constellation ... omphalocele and gastroschisis Abdominal wall defects occur as a result of failure of the mesoderm to replace the body stalk, which persists in a region normally occupied by somatopleure... mesoderm causes defective abdominal wall closure and persistent herniation of the midgut. The abdominal viscera are contained within a translucent sac...In 50% of cases, the liver, spleen, and ovaries or testes accompany the extruded midgut. ... abdominal wall defect in gastroschisis ...results in a dysplastic abdominal wall that may rupture with increased abdominal pressure...Bladder exstrophy (hypogastric omphalocele) has an incidence of 3.3 in 100,000 births...

Texas Pediatric Surgical Associates
Visitor Comments [for Professionals mainly] "... a good site ... if you want to differentiate between gastroschisis and omphaloceles ..."
An omphalocele is a congenital (found at birth) malformation in which variable amounts of abdominal contents protrude into the base of the umbilical cord …

Small ventral abdominal wall defect
University of Utah, Salt Lake City
Visitor Comments [for Teaching Purposes] [Illustrated] "... a good picture of omphalocele ... but not gastroschisis."
… Involves … Region … Omphalocele …

Ali Nawaz Khan, University of Manchester, eMedicine, December 2, 2005
Visitor Comments [for Professionals mainly] "... a great site!"
Gastroschisis represents a herniation of abdominal contents through a paramedian full-thickness abdominal fusion defect. The abdominal herniation is usually to the right of the umbilical cord. No genetic association exists. A gastroschisis usually contains small bowel and has no surrounding membrane. The herniated bowel is nonrotated and devoid of secondary fixation to the posterior abdominal wall...The maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level is elevated in 77-100% of mothers. The mortality rate is approximately 17%. Surgical repair should be offered within the first day after delivery to avoid within easy access of a neonatal surgical unit is advised...Omphalocele is herniation of a variable amount of abdominal viscera through a defect (2-10 cm) at the base of the umbilical cord. A membrane covers the herniation...Association with holoprosencephaly and limb anomalies is occasional. Incidence of chromosomal abnormalities is high... Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) is a common cause of abdominal wall defect...produce appearances similar to gastroschisis...bladder extrophy may present as an external, well-defined, solid or complex mass immediately superior to the fetal genitalia...Cloacal extrophy consists of a low omphalocele; bladder or cloacal extrophy; and, frequently, other caudal anomalies... Limb-body-wall complex (LBWC) is a lethal condition...The abdominal contents lie outside within a sac of amnion and mesoderm.

University of Utah, Salt Lake City
Visitor Comments [for Professionals mainly] [for Teaching Purposes] [Illustrated] "... a good picture of gastroschisis. It may be too graphic for some parents. "
Gastroschisis in association with a limb-body wall (LBW) complex … sometimes called "amnionic band syndrome" but such bands may only be present in half of cases …

Victor A. McKusick, OMIM, Johns Hopkins University, June 13, 2007
Visitor Comments [for Professionals mainly] "... a good site."
Alternative titles; symbols
Defined by Dorland's Medical Dictionary as 'a congenital fissure of the abdominal cavity.' It may be fundamentally the same as omphalocele, which is defined by the same source as 'protrusion, at birth, of part of the intestine through a large defect in the anterior abdominal wall at the umbilicus, the protruding bowel being covered only by a thin transparent membrane composed of amnion and peritoneum … Both omphalocele and gastroschisis, when they occur without other malformations, are probably multifactorial … Experience suggests that some cases of gastroschisis and omphalocele may have the same genetic basis …

Gastroschisis, familial recurrence
Kimberly J. Maness, BA et al.,, February 28, 1994
Visitor Comments "... a good site."
Paraomphalocele, laparoschisis, abdominoschisis … Fissure of the abdominal wall not involving the site of insertion of the umbilical cord and usually accompanied by protrusion of the small and part of the large intestine. Other viscera can be herniated too … 0.5-0.8:10,000 births2,3 … Gastroschisis is a rare congenital lateral abdominal wall defect … Abnormal chromosome studies or other … infants of mothers who are less than 25 years …

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment
Visitor Comments [Support Group] "... a great site for gastroschisis and other ... defects as well."
Ventral wall defects are among the differential diagnoses of an elevated mid-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) value...The bowel herniates through a small anterior abdominal wall defect, which is usually located to the right of the umbilicus...the unprotected bowel may not function well after delivery.

Mothers of Omphaloceles
Robin Ramey, MOOs Webring,
Visitor Comments [Support Group] "... great for mothers of children who have omphaloceles/gastroschisis ... Also, it is geared towards patients."
... Webring to connect and share with everyone that knows anyone born with an Omphalocele... believe we can all give answers and support to all who need it ...

Gastroschisis Exompholos Extrophies Parents Support Network
Visitor Comments [Support Group] "... good website."
GEEPS is an international network of families and friends of children born with abdominal abnormalities.

Ali Nawaz Khan, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manchester, UK, eMedicine, December 2, 2005
Visitor Comments [for Professionals mainly] [for Teaching Purposes] [Illustrated] "... good."
Omphalocele is an anterior abdominal wall defect at the base of the umbilical cord, with herniation of the abdominal contents. The herniated organs are covered by the parietal peritoneum. After 10 weeks' gestation the amnion and Wharton jelly also cover the herniated mass. Omphaloceles are associated with other anomalies in more than 70% of the cases ... The associated anomalies include the following: Chromosomal anomalies (40-60%) ... Cardiac defects (16-47%) ... Genitourinary anomalies (40%) ... Neural tube and head and neck anomalies ... Gastrointestinal anomalies (40%) ... Musculoskeletal anomalies (10-30%) ... Maternal/fetal developmental abnormalities: These include oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), single umbilical artery, allantoic cysts, placental chorioangioma, and fetal immaturity and prematurity ... Small omphaloceles occur with a rate of 1 case in 5000 live births. Large omphaloceles occur with a rate of 1 case in 10,000 live births ... The frequency in the United Kingdom and in continental Europe is the same as that in the United States ... When an omphalocele is an isolated abnormality, the prognosis is good, and the mortality rate is around 10% ... The male-to-female ratio is 1:1 ... Other Problems to be Considered: Physiological bowel herniation ... Umbilical hernia ... Gastroschisis ... Amniotic band syndrome ... Extrophy of the urinary bladder ... Thoracoabdominal pentalogy of Cantrell ... Cloacal extrophy ... Limb-body wall complex ... Multiple cavernous hemangiomas ... Pseudo-omphalocele ...

Pentalogy of Cantrell
Sabrina D. Craigo et al,, July 21, 1992
Visitor Comments [for Professionals mainly] [for Teaching Purposes] [Illustrated] "... useful for information specifically on gastroschisis."
Synonyms: Thoraco-abdominal ectopia cordis; Cantrell-Heller-Ravitch syndrome; pentalogy syndrome; peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia ... The complete syndrome is characterized by two major defects: ectopia cordis and an abdominal wall defect (most commonly an omphalocele, but gastroschisis can also be present). Incomplete expressions have also been reported. Very rare. Less than 90 cases have been reported ... Intracardiac anomalies (i.e., tetralogy of Fallot) are the rule ... Thoraco-abdominal ectopia cordis, or pentalogy of Cantrell ... If a diagnosis is made by ultrasound, chromosomal analysis is recommended ... poor prognosis, termination of pregnancy can be considered ...

Elke Sleurs, MD*, Gloria Valero, MD et al,, February 02, 2002
Visitor Comments [for Professionals mainly] [for Teaching Purposes] [Illustrated] "... good information ... several ultrasound images."
Synonyms: paraomphalocele, laparoschisis, abdominoschisis ... a paraumbilical defect involving all the layers of the abdominal wall, with evisceration of abdominal organs, usually the small bowel, on occasion large bowel and stomach ... Several reports are mentioning an increased incidence in the last decades probably due to multifactorial causes. The prevalence is also age-related and is higher in mothers younger then 24 years old, with the highest incidence in teenage mothers ... leading theory in the pathogenesis ... premature atrophy of the right umbilical vein ...

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
Visitor Comments [for Teaching Purposes] [Support Group] "... good for expecting parents."
What is gastroschisis? Gastroschisis is an opening in the abdominal wall that allows the stomach and small and large intestines to extend outside the body ... The opening almost always occurs to the right of the navel (umbilicus) ... Gastroschisis is an uncommon birth defect, seen in about 1 of 5,000 births ... 10% of infants with gastroschisis have an intestinal atresia ... Once the diagnosis is made, you might want to plan for your baby to be delivered in a hospital with a neonatal intensive care unit, where he / she can receive the special care that will be required ...

Children's Hospital and Health Center, 2007
Visitor Comments "... offers good illustrated pictures of gastroschisis ..."

Prevalence of gastroschisis at birth: retrospective study
Pierpaolo Mastroiacovo, British Medical Journal, June 25, 2002
Visitor Comments "... prevalence of gastroschisis in different countries ... increased prevalence of gastroschisis in mothers of younger maternal age."

Fetal Gastroschisis
University of California, San Francisco Children's Hospital, April 26, 2007
[Support Group]
Fetal Gastroschisis ... A gastroschisis is a birth defect in which there is an opening in your developing baby's abdominal wall...majority...are born to mothers in their late teens or early 20s. ...This allows some of the organs, including the stomach and intestine, of the abdomen to protrude outside of the baby's body...Treatment for gastroschisis takes place after birth...

July 2001
Visitor Comments [for Teaching Purposes] [Illustrated] [Spanish] "... good ..."
FACULTAD DE MEDICINA Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara
una falla en el retorno del intestino medio al abdomen, producido alrededor de la 10ª semana de gestación, quizá por una anomalía vascular de la arteria onfalomesentérica derecha que produce un defecto de la pared abdominal, generalmente a la derecha de la implantación del cordón umbilical ... Existe daño severo visceral por exposición al líquido amniótico, con engrosamiento de la pared y trastorno motor intestinal postnatal ... requiere cirugía correctiva urgente ... La sobrevida reportada es > 8 % ...

Informar un caso de gastrosquisis exposición in utero de carbimazol
The Annals of Pharmacotherapy: Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 829-831, 2003
Visitor Comments [for Professionals mainly] [Spanish]
carbimazol o metimazol durante el embarazo ha estado relacionada con un aumento en la incidencia de aplasia cutis congénita ... se han reportado otros casos de defectos de la pared abdominal en 4 recién nacidos, dos de ellos relacionados con aplasia cutis congénita ...

Texas Pediatric Surgical Associates
Visitor Comments [for Professionals mainly][Spanish] "... good to explain omphaloceles to Spanish speaking patients."
¿Qué es un onfalocele? ... es una malformación congénita (existe al nacer) en la cual cantidades variables del contenido abdominal (vísceras) están insertadas en la base del cordón umbilical ...

I.B.I.S. Birth Defects, March 11, 2003
Visitor Comments [Ukrainian]
A fact sheet for specialists in Ukrainian ... Definition ... Prevalence ... Pathogenesis ... Associated anomalies ... Clinical features ... Prenatal diagnosis ... Differential diagnosis ... Treatment and care ... Prognosis ... OMIM number ...



Last Updated: 2008/3/10


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