|Cocaine use by women of childbearing age is an alarming trend in recent years ... concomitant use of other agents such as alcohol and tobacco ... widespread effects on the fetus ... growth retardation ... intestinal atresia ... and limb reduction ...
Illicit Drug Use During Pregnancy
March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, November 2006
Cocaine can affect a pregnant woman and her unborn baby in many ways ... Women who use cocaine during pregnancy are at least twice as likely as other women to have a premature baby ... Some studies suggest that cocaine-exposed children may have difficulties with language development and paying attention ...
Cocaine and tobacco use during early pregnancy substantially increases the risk of miscarriage
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, April 1999
Women who smoke early in their pregnancies have nearly twice the risk of having a miscarriage as women who don't smoke. Pregnant women who use cocaine also substantially increase their risk of miscarriage ...
Teratogen Information System (TERIS), March 1, 1996
Magnitude of teratogenic risk to child born after exposure during gestation.
Vascular disruption in the fetus appears to be associated with maternal cocaine use and may be a particular hazard in the second or third trimester of pregnancy.
Cocaine and Pregnancy
Organization of Teratology Information Services (OTIS), August 2001
"... the information below will help you determine if your prenetal exposure to cocaine will increase the fetal risk above the background risk. If you have any additional questions or for more information regerding OTIS, contact the Teratology Information Service in your area ... with every pregnancy, any woman has a 3 to 5 percent chance to have a baby with a birth defect ... what is cocaine ... can cocaine cause other problems besides miscarriage and birth defects ... cocaine is a local anesthetic and a powerful stimulant of the central nervous system ... researchers have not determined just how much cocaine it takes to cause birth defects ... elimination of cocaine is considerably slower in the fetus and new born than in an adult ... during the early months of pregnancy, cocaine exposure may increase the risk for miscarriages. Later in pregnancy, cocaine use can cause the placenta to separate from the wall of the uterus before labor begins. This condition, called abruptio placenta can lead to extensive bleeding and can be fatal for both the mother and baby ... most babies exposed to cocaine prior to birth do not have a birth defect ... birth defects that have been reported with maternal cocaine use include abnormalities of the brain, skull, face, eyes, heart, limbs, intestines, genitals, and urinary tract ... babies of mothers who use cocaine during pregnancy tend to weigh less ... cocaine appears in the semen and may reduce the number of sperm or increase the number of abnormal sperm ..."
Intrauterine Growth of Full-Term Infants: Impact of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure
Emmalee S. Bandstra, MD et al., PEDIATRICS Vol. 108 No. 6 December 2001
Cocaine, Pregnancy and Risk of Intrauterine Death
Richard M. Pauli, M.D., Ph.D., Wisconson Stillbirth Service Program, December 1997
In Utero Exposure to Cocaine: A Review
Jane E. Ellis, et al, Southern Medical Journal, 1993
Cocaine Effects on Fetus
International Birth Defects Information Systems ( IBIS ), February 15, 2002
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Last Updated: 2007/08/30