The poor in Iodine
The poor in Folates
(Hydrocephalus - Spina Bifida)
a Symptom and a Syndrome
Fred J. Biasini, Ph.D. et al.,
Department of Psychology,
University of Alabama at Birmingham
To appear in ... Comprehensive Textbook of Child and Adolescent Disorders. New York: Oxford University Press, in press.
Mental retardation is an idea, a condition, a syndrome,
a symptom, and a source of pain and bewilderment to many families ... The objective of this chapter is to provide the reader with an overview of mental retardation, a developmental disability with a long and sometimes controversial history ...
A cornerstone event in the evolution of the care and treatment of the mentally retarded was the work of physician Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard ... Hired in 1800 by the Director of the National Institutes for Deaf-Mutes in France to work with a boy named Victor. Victor, a young boy, had apparently lived his whole life in the woods of south central France and, after being captured and escaping several times, fled to the mountains of Aveyron. At about age 12, he was captured once again and sent to an orphanage, found to be deaf and mute, and moved to the Institute for Deaf-Mutes ... Itard
developed a broad educational program for Victor to develop his senses, intellect,
and emotions. After 5 years of training, Victor continued to have significant difficulties in language and social interaction though he
acquired more skills and knowledge than many of Itard's contemporaries believed
possible ... Itard had the opportunity to educate a group of children who were mentally retarded ... Supervised the work of Edouard Seguin ... Seguin developed a comprehensive approach to the education of children with mental retardation, known as the Physiological Method ... In
1850, Seguin moved to the United States and became a driving force in the education of individuals with mental retardation. In 1876, he
founded what would become the American Association on Metal Retardation. Many of Seguin's techniques have been modified and are still in use today ... The newly developed test of intelligence developed by Binet was translated in 1908 by Henry Goddard, Director of Research at the training school in Vineland, New Jersey. Goddard published an American version of the test in 1910 ... Edgar Doll
developed the Vineland Social Maturity Scale ... As a result of the disillusionment with residential treatment, advocacy groups, such as the National Association of Retarded Citizens and the President's Commission on Mental Retardation, were established in the 1950's through the 1970's. The Wyatt-Stickney federal court action, in the 1970's, was a landmark class action suit in Alabama establishing the right to treatment of individuals living in residential facilities. Purely custodial care was no longer acceptable. Concurrent with this case, the United States Congress passed the Education for the Handicapped Act in 1975, now titled the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. This Act guaranteed the appropriate education of all children with mental retardation and developmental disabilities, from school age through 21 years of age ...
Over the next 30 years, the definitions of mental retardation
focused on one of three aspects of development: the inability to learn to perform
common acts, deficits or delays in social development/competence, or low IQ ... Edgar Doll who proposed that mental retardation referred to "social incompetence, due to mental subnormality, which has been developmentally arrested, which obtains at maturity, is of constitutional origin, and which is essentially incurable" ... As a result of the conflicting views and definitions of mental retardation, a growing number of labels used to refer to individuals with mental retardation ... American Association on Mental Deficiency (Retardation) proposed and adopted a three part definition in 1959. "Mental retardation refers to subaverage general intellectual functioning which originates in the developmental period and is associated with impairment in adaptive behavior" ... A five level classification scheme was introduced replacing the previous three level system ... borderline (IQ 67-83), mild (IQ 50-66), moderate (IQ 33-49), severe (16-32), and profound (IQ <16) were adopted ... The
most recent change in the definition of mental retardation was adopted in 1992 by the American Association on Mental Retardation. "Mental retardation refers to substantial limitations in present functioning. It is characterized by significantly subaverage
intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following applicable adaptive skill areas: communication,
self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health
and safety, functional academics, leisure, and work. Mental retardation manifests before age 18" (American Association on Mental Retardation, 1992) ... This revision eliminated the severity level classification scheme ...
Following a review of the most recent epidemiological studies, McLaren and Bryson (1987) reported
that the prevalence of mental retardation was approximately 1.25% based on total population screening ... Individual states report rates from 0.3% to 2.5% depending on the criteria used ...
... The American Association on Mental Retardation subdivides the disorders that may be associated with mental retardation into three general areas: prenatal causes, perinatal causes, and postnatal causes ...
In approximately 20 to 30% of the individuals identified with severe mental retardation the cause has been attributed to prenatal factors, such as chromosomal abnormality ... In 30 to 40% of cases, the cause is reported to be unknown. The etiology of mild mental retardation is much less delineated. Between 45 and 63% of the cases are attributed to unknown etiology ... largest number
attributed to multiple factors ( prenatal ) ...
Associated disorders include: epilepsy, cerebral palsy, vision and hearing impairments, speech/language problems, and behavior problems ...
University of Virginia
[for Professionals mainly]
What is Mental Retardation.
Approach to Mental Retardation
Understanding Mental Retardation
Children Who are Mentally Retarded
Introduction to Mental
The Arc, October 2004
An individual is considered to have mental retardation based on the following three criteria: intellectual functioning level (IQ) is below 70-75; significant limitations exist in two or more adaptive skill areas; and the condition is present from childhood (defined as age 18 or less) ( AAMR, 1992 ).
What are the adaptive skills essential for daily functioning?
How many people are affected by mental retardation?
How does mental retardation affect individuals?
ARC of the United States
The national organization of and for people with mental retardation
and related disabilities and their families ...
Developmental Disabilities - Mental Retardation
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
An estimated 12 of every 1,000 U.S school children have mental retardation ... Surveillance Activities ...
Causes of Mental Retardation
American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), December 1996
The field of genetics has important implications for people with mental
retardation. Over 350 inborn errors of metabolism have been identified,
most of which lead to mental retardation (Scriver, 19995). Yet, the possibility
of being born with mental retardation or developing the condition later
in life can be caused by multiple factors unrelated to our genetic make-up
AAMR American Association on Mental Retardation
American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR), July 9, 2007
Multiple Congenital Anomaly / Mental Retardation
United States: National Library of Medicine ( NLM ), December 12, 2006
A database of structured descriptions of congenital abnormalities associated with mental retardation.
The ARC's position
statements that describe what The Arc believes on critical issues
The Arc, 2005
Sexuality, Education, etc. (a large roster of position papers)
Bibliography Disability Studies & Mental Retardation
Steve Taylor & Perri Harris, Reprinted from Disability Studies Quartery, 16(3), 4-13.
A photographic essay, Social policy & practice, Theory ... Law
& Policy ... Parent & Family Issues ...
How to Talk to Others About Prevention
Causes and Genetics of Mental Retardation
Evaluation de l'enfant avec Retard mental
Swiss - Paediatrics
Avec une prévalence d'environ 3% dans la population générale, le retard mental représente un problème médical aussi fréquent qu'important ... terme retard mental s'applique normalement à partir de l'âge de scolarité ... Un diagnostic bien fondé est indispensable pour répondre aux questions critiques des parents: Comment cela est-il arrivé? Une récidive est-elle possible? Y a-t-il un traitement? Quel est le pronostic? ...
ESTUDIOS GENÉTICOS EN EL RETRASO MENTAL: )CUANDO REALIZARLOS?
Dr. Antonio Pérez Aytés
Los recientes avances de la genética molecular nos están permitiendo diagnosticar cada vez mayor número de pacientes con retraso mental que hasta ahora permanecían en el amplio grupo de Aretraso mental de causa desconocida ó idiopática@. No obstante se ha creado en la población general, y también entre los profesionales sanitarios, un exceso de expectativas sobre los estudios genéticos, y en muchas ocasiones se tiene la errónea idea de que con un análisis genético simple se llegará al diagnóstico en prácticamente todos los casos. Es importante conocer, y esto debemos transmitírselo a los padres, que hoy día, a pesar de todas las pruebas genéticas y la tecnología disponibles, en alrededor de un 40 % de casos con retraso mental nunca se llega a determinar la causa del mismo
Mental Retardation Prevention in Orphans
I.B.I.S. Birth Defects, February 18, 2002
Fact Sheet in Ukrainian
Last Updated: 2008/2/29