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International Birth Defects Information Systems
Asperger Syndrome

International Birth Defects Information Systems


Asperger Syndrome


Topics: | Asperger Syndrome |

Related Topics: | Autism |

Service Related: | Support Groups | Professional Associations | Key Information Sources |

Languages: | English | Spanish |

Autistic Disorder

Victor A. McKusick, OMIM, Johns Hopkins University, November 1, 2007
Visitor Comments [for Professionals mainly]

Autism, Infantile ... Gene Map Locus: 7q

There is evidence that several genes may be involved in the causation and pathogenesis of autism. One of these genes may be located on 7q31 ... Autism, the prototypical pervasive development disorder (PDD), is characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, restricted and stereotyped patterns of interests and activities, and the presence of developmental abnormalities by 3 years of age (Bailey et al., 1996). In his pioneer description of infantile autism, Kanner (1943) noted that in most cases the child's behavior was abnormal from early infancy. On this basis, he suggested the presence of an inborn, presumably genetic, defect. Autism has a population prevalence of approximately 4 in 10,000. A strong genetic component in autism is indicated by an increased concordance rate in monozygotic (MZ) vs dizygotic (DZ) twins (Bailey et al., 1995) and a risk to sibs of idiopathic cases that is 75 times greater than the general population prevalence (Bolton et al., 1994) ... no recorded cases of an autistic child having an overtly autistic parent, ... it is unusual to find more than 1 autistic child in a sibship ... MZ twins showed 36% concordance, ... DZ twins showed no concordance ... Ritvo et al. (1985) found a concordance rate for autism of 23.5% in dizygotic twins and 95.7% in monozygotic twins ... epidemiologic study of same-sex autistic twins ... 60% of monozygotic pairs were concordant for autism vs no dizygotic pairs ... In a multicenter study in Sweden, Blomquist et al. (1985) found the fragile X in 13 of 83 boys (16%) with infantile autism but in none of 19 girls with infantile autism ... Lopreiato and Wulfsberg (1992) described a complex chromosomal rearrangement in a 6.5-year-old boy ... involved chromosomes 1, 7 and 21: ... developmental disorder with onset by 3 years of age. It is defined as a triad of social relating and communication impairments, with restricted, repetitive, or stereotyped behaviors ... male to female ratio of 4 to 1 (mental retardation is said to be present in approximately 75% of cases, seizures in 15 to 30% of cases, and electroencephalographic abnormalities in 20 to 50% of cases). Kanner (1943) defined autism as 'an innate inability to form the usual, biologically provided affective contact with people.' ... An International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium (1998) conducted a 2-stage genome search for susceptibility loci in autism on 87 affected sib pairs plus 12 non-sib affected relative-pairs, from a total of 99 families ... A region on 7q was the most significant ... Another potential susceptibility region overlapped with the 15q11-q13 region ... Vincent et al. (2000) identified an autistic individual carrying a translocation, t(7;13)(q31.3;q21), with the chromosome 7 breakpoint located in the region of 7q in which a susceptibility locus for autism had been postulated ... Folstein and Mankoski (2000) suggested a relationship between autism and specific language impairment (SLI) because genetic studies in each disorder point to a locus on 7q31; see speech-language disorder-1 (SPCH1; 602081).

Asperger Syndrome
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, December 12, 2007
AS is an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one of a distinct group of neurological conditions characterized by a greater or lesser degree of impairment in language and communication skills, as well as repetitive or restrictive patterns of thought and behavior.  Other ASDs include:  classic autism, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (usually referred to as PDD-NOS).

DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Asperger's Disorder
A. Qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following: 1) marked impairment ... 2) failure to develop ... 3) a lack of spontaneous ... 4) lack of social ... B. Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, as manifested by at least one off the following: 1) encompassing preoccupation ... 2) apparently inflexible ... 3) stereotyped and repetitive ... 4) persistent preoccupation ... Gillberg's Criteria for Asperger's Disorder 1. Severe impairment in reciprocal social interaction (at least two of the following) a) inability to interact with peers b) lack of desire to interact with peers c) lack of appreciation of social cues d) socially and emotionally inappropriate behavior 2. All-absorbing narrow interest (at least one of the following) a) exclusion of other activities b) repetitive adherence c) more rote than meaning 3. Imposition of routines and interests (at least one of the following) a) on self, in aspects of life ...

Online Asperger Syndrome Information & Support
Barbara Kirby, O.A.S.I.S.
As parents of children who are diagnosed with AS, we understand how essential is it that families of children diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome and related disorders, educators who teach children with AS,  professionals  working with individuals diagnosed with AS,  and individuals with AS who are seeking support, have access to information.   Although recently reminded that there is no oasis or paradise for those with Asperger Syndrome,  we sincerely hope that they,  along with parents and professionals, will find a bit of shade and support via the information presented and links available at this site.

Asperger’s Syndrome
Stephen M. Edelson, Ph.D., Center for the Study of Autism, Salem, Oregon.
Asperger’s syndrome was first described by a German doctor, Hans Asperger, in 1944 ... Odd-like behaviors ... 1. Language: a) lucid speech before age 4 years; grammar and vocabulary are usually very good. b) speech is sometimes stilted and repetitive c) voice tends to be flat and emotionless d) conversations revolve around self 2. Cognition a) obsessed with complex topics, such as patterns, weather, music, history, etc. b) often described as eccentric c) I.Q.’s fall along the full spectrum, but many are in the above normal range in verbal ability and in the below average range in performance abilities. d) many have dyslexia, writing problems, and difficulty with mathematics e) lack common sense f) Concrete thinking (versus abstract) 3. Behavior a) movements tend to be clumsy and awkward b) odd forms of self-stimulatory behavior c) sensory problems appear not to be as dramatic as those with other forms of autism d) socially aware but displays inappropriate reciprocal interaction ...

Autism/Asperger's Syndrome/PDD links for AUTINET FORUM
1997

Asperger Syndrome
Family Village Library, November 13, 2006
Where to Go to Chat with Others ...

Families of Adults Afflicted with Asperger's Syndrome
FAAS, Ins., 2007
This is a small collection of links regarding Asperger's Syndrome as well as other, general links that may be of use to you in exploring and manipulating the World Wide Web ...

Síndrome de Asperger (Trastorno de Asperger)
Debra Wood, RN, UT Medical Group Inc, July 2003
Visitor Comments [Spanish]
La causa del síndrome de Asperger es desconocida ...
Los síntomas pueden incluir:
  • Dificultad para interactuar con otros
  • Problemas para hacer amigos
  • Poca comprensión hacia los sentimientos de los demás
  • Insensibilidad a sugerencias sociales y expresiones faciales
  • Reacciones sociales y emocionales inapropiadas
  • Preocupación por su propio mundo
  • No compartir diversiones, intereses o logros con los demás
  • Seguimiento de rutinas repetitivas
  • Forma de pensar cerrada
  • Intereses limitados, generalmente uno o dos asuntos
  • Repetición de palabras y frases una y otra vez
  • Interés concentrado en pocos temas
  • Buena memoria de rutina sin comprender la información
  • Habilidades verbales limitadas o uso de palabras de manera extraña
  • Dificultad para imaginar cosas o pensar de manera abstracta
  • Tomarse las cosas muy literalmente
  • Enfocarse en pequeños detalles y tener problemas para observar un panorama más general
  • Habilidad de leer sin comprender las palabras
  • Problemas con la comunicación no verbal
  • Contacto visual pobre
  • Pocas expresiones faciales, salvo en el caso del enojo o tristeza
  • Postura corporal o uso deficiente de gestos
  • Movimientos torpes
  • Dar manotazos
  • Poca coordinación
  • Inflexibilidad para aceptar el cambio
  • Dificultad para aceptar pérdidas o críticas
  • Deseo de terminar toda tarea comenzada

AUTISMO Y SÍNDROME DE ASPERGER: DESDE EL PUNTO DE VISTA BIBLIOGRÁFICO
Francisco José Rodríguez Muñoz, Universidad de Almería
Visitor Comments [Spanish]
Este repertorio bibliográfico pretende ser una versión actualizada de
algunos trabajos aparecidos entre 2000 y 2007 que abordan los trastornos
del espectro autista y el síndrome de Asperger desde la perspectiva
comunicativa. La colaboración de la lingüística con otras ciencias es un
hecho indiscutible en nuestros días. Por ello, los estudios recogidos no
corresponden exclusivamente al ámbito lingüístico, sino que a menudo
proceden de lugares colindantes con otras disciplinas ...

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Last Updated: 2008/2/4

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American Medical Association