Hypospadias: A parent's guide to surgery
Intersex Society of North America, 2006
[Support Groups] [Illustrated]
Hypospadias refers to a urethral meatus ("pee-hole") which is located along the underside, rather than ... Counseling is essential ... We believe that your child will be best helped by minimizing genital surgery. No surgery should be performed unless it is absolutely necessary for his comfort and safety ...
Cryptorchidism and Hypospadias in Sons of Gardeners and Farmers
Ida Sloth Weidner, et al., Copenhagen University Hospital, Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 106, Number 12, December 1998
... Some chemicals used in farming and gardening have been shown to possess estrogenic and other hormone - disrupting effects ... A significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism but not hypospadias was found in sons of women working in gardening ...
Hypospadias Trends in Two US Surveillance Systems
CDC Press Office, January 10, 2008
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Center for Environmental Health recently published an article in the journal Pediatrics entitled, "Hypospadias Trends in Two US Surveillance Systems." ... The data show that rates ... have increased markedly over the past 25 to 30 years ... Rates increased almost twofold in metropolitan Atlanta from 1968 to 1993, from around 18 per 10,000 births to approximately 40 per 10,000 births ... The cause of the increase in hypospadias is not known. Original suspicions were that the increase was due to increasing rates of diagnosis of more mile cases ... However, the percentage of mile cases in the Atlanta surveillance system has not increased ... Rates are highest among whites, lowest among Hispanics, and intermediate among African Americans ... hypothesis that increases in hypospadias and testicular cancer and a possible decline in sperm counts are due to the effects of environmental pollutants knows as endocrine disruptors ...
International Trends in Rates of Hypospadias and Cryptorchidism
Leonard J. Paulozzi, Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 107, Number 4, April 1999
Researchers from seven European nations and the United States have published reports of increasing rates of hypospadias during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s ... Increases were not seen in less affluent nations ... What might cause this? ... some scientists have suggested that estrogens (or, in Europe, oestrogens) administered to the mother while the baby develops inside her can affect the process of male sexual development ... One bizarre fact ... drug called Propecia, designed to reverse hair loss in balding men, can cause hypospadias if it is ingested by a pregnant woman ...
Texas Pediatric Surgical Associates
How are hyposadias and chordee repaired? ... we try and correct most children with one operation, about 10 % will require a second surgical procedure to ...
University of Virginia Health System, August 28, 2006
La epispadias, trastorno que se presenta con menos frecuencia que la hipospadias, también se manifiesta en bebés con espina bífida o extrofia vesical (trastorno en el que la vejiga puede tomar un aspecto como si hubiera girado desde adentro hacia afuera y la pared abdominal se encuentra parcialmente abierta, lo que da por resultado que la vejiga queda expuesta por fuera del cuerpo) y se presenta cuando el orificio uretral se encuentra en una ubicación anormal. A diferencia de la hipospadias, con la epispadias, el orificio uretral en el hombre generalmente se encuentra en la cara superior (no en la cara inferior o la punta) del pene ...
Cryptorchidism Fact Sheet for Specialists
I.B.I.S. Birth Defects, 2002
Definition ... Ethymology ... Pathogenesis ... Associated anomalies ... Diagnosis ... Prognosis ... Treatment ... OMIM number ...
I.B.I.S. Birth Defects, 2002
A fact sheet for specialists
Main diagnostic criteria ... Pathogenesis ... Clinical features ... Differential diagnosis ... Complications ... Treatment ... OMIM number ...
Last Updated: 2008/2/20